Lemurs of Madagascar

Lemurs of Madagascar

Gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) Gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus)

Collared Brown Lemurs Collared Brown Lemurs

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Coquerel Coquerel

Black-and-white Ruffed Lemur (Varecia variegata) Black-and-white Ruffed Lemur (Varecia variegata)

Mongoose Lemur (Eulemur mongoz) Mongoose Lemur (Eulemur mongoz)

Gray Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus) Gray Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus)

Verreaux Verreaux

Fat-tailed Dwarf Lemur (Cheirogaleus medius) Fat-tailed Dwarf Lemur (Cheirogaleus medius)

Red-fronted lemur (Eulemur rufifrons) Red-fronted lemur (Eulemur rufifrons)

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Red-tailed sportive lemur (Lepilemur ruficaudatus) Red-tailed sportive lemur (Lepilemur ruficaudatus)

Red Ruffed Lemur (Varecia rubra) Red Ruffed Lemur (Varecia rubra)

Eastern lesser bamboo lemur (Hapalemur griseus) Eastern lesser bamboo lemur (Hapalemur griseus)

Eastern lesser bamboo lemur (Hapalemur griseus) Eastern lesser bamboo lemur (Hapalemur griseus)

Coquerel Coquerel

Coquerel Coquerel

White sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) White sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi)

Diademed sifaka (Propithecus diadema) Diademed sifaka (Propithecus diadema)

Coquerel Coquerel

Male crowned lemur (Eulemur coronatus) Male crowned lemur (Eulemur coronatus)

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Ankarana sportive lemur Ankarana sportive lemur

Male black lemur Male black lemur

Female black lemur Female black lemur

Aye-aye Aye-aye

Verreaux Verreaux

Lemur News

For Malagasy trapped in poverty, threatened lemurs and fossas are fair game – Half of nearly 700 households surveyed in a recent study in Makira National Park in Madagascar reported eating lemur meat and a quarter had consumed fossa meat.- The research conducted by the Wildlife Conservation Society relied on indirect questioning and revealed unusually high levels of consumption of meat from the fossa, Madagascar’s top predator.- Hunting pressure combined with shrinking habitats could lead to the local extinction of the indri, a critically endangered species and the largest living lemur, along with three other lemur species in the park.- WCS’s current research will feed into a “behavior change campaign” to promote alternatives to hunting like poultry and fish farming, and harvesting of edible insects. Podcast: It’s an ‘incredibly exciting’ time for the field of bioacoustics – On this episode of the Mongabay Newscast, we look at why it’s such an “incredibly exciting” time to be involved in the field of conservation bioacoustics — and we listen to some new and favorite wildlife recordings, too.- Our guest is Laurel Symes, assistant director of the K. Lisa Yang Center for Conservation Bioacoustics at Cornell University’s Lab of Ornithology. Symes tells us about how a new $24 million endowment will allow the center to expand its support for bioacoustics research and technology around the world and why this field is poised to make a huge impact on conservation.- After our conversation with her, we listen to some of the most interesting bioacoustics recordings we’ve featured on the Mongabay Newscast, including the sounds of elephants, lemurs, gibbons, right whales, humpback whales, and frogs. Slash-and-burn farming eats away at a Madagascar haven for endangered lemurs, frogs – The Ankeniheny-Zahamena Corridor (CAZ), a protected area in Madagascar, has experienced a surge in deforestation in the past five months, driven largely by slash-and-burn agriculture.- The loss of forest threatens rare and endangered wildlife found nowhere else, including lemurs and frogs and geckos, conservationists say.- Other factors fueling the deforestation include mining for gemstones and cutting of trees to make charcoal.- The problem in CAZ is emblematic of a wider trend throughout the central eastern region of Madagascar, in both protected and unprotected areas, where 1.5 million hectares (3.7 million acres) of tree cover has been lost since 2001. Top 15 species discoveries from 2020 (Photos) – In 2020, Mongabay and others reported on several announcements of species new to science.- Snakes, insects, many new orchids, frogs, and even a few mammals were named in 2020.- In no particular order, we present our 15 top picks. A Madagascar forest long protected by its remoteness is now threatened by it – Satellite data show an increase in deforestation in Tsaratanana Reserve and the neighboring COMATSA protected area in northern Madagascar in recent years, and an uptick in the last few months.- Though many of the island’s forests have been extensively cleared, these northern forests were relatively well protected until recently.- The loss of these forests to make way for the illegal cultivation of marijuana, vanilla and rice threatens the region’s rich biodiversity and high endemism, conservationists say.- Some experts argue that the legalization of marijuana would make it less likely that people would grow the crop in the remote forests of Tsaratanana. As minister and activists trade barbs, Madagascar’s forests burn – Forest fires are blazing across Madagascar, including in its protected areas, home to some of the world’s rarest species, from critically endangered lemurs to hundreds of endemic snails.- In Manombo Special Reserve, known for sheltering more than 50 species of snails found nowhere else on Earth, woodland the size of 800 Olympic swimming pools went up in smoke last month.- In nearby Befotaka-Midongy National Park, one of the largest stretches of evergreen forest in Madagascar, more than 1,000 fires were reported this year.- A heated debate has erupted online about the fires, with some activists criticizing the environment ministry, while the ministry says the blame is shared by NGOs that manage most of the country’s protected areas. Bug bites: Edible insect production ramps up quickly in Madagascar – In the last two years, two insect farming projects have taken off in Madagascar as a way to provide precious protein while alleviating pressure on lemurs and other wild animals hunted for bushmeat.- One program, which promotes itself with a deck of playing cards, encourages rainforest residents in the northeast to farm a bacon-flavored native planthopper called sakondry.- Another program focuses on indoor production of crickets in the capital city, Antananarivo.- Both projects are on the cusp of expanding to other parts of the country. Podcast: Lemur love and award-winning plant passion in Madagascar – We’ve got recordings of indri lemurs and the architect of 11 new protected areas that aim to protect Madagascar’s rich biodiversity of plant life on this episode of the Mongabay Newscast.- We’re joined by Jeannie Raharimampionana, a Malagasy botanist who has identified 80 priority areas for conservation of plant life in her country and has already turned 11 of those areas into officially decreed protected areas.- We’re also joined by Valeria Torti, who uses bioacoustics to improve conservation of critically endangered indri lemurs in Madagascar’s Maromizaha forest. She plays for us a number of recordings of the primates’ songs. Lemurs might never recover from COVID-19 (commentary) – This World Lemur Day, it is worth pointing out that the Covid-19 pandemic poses a threat to Madagascar’s endemic primates, which are some of the planet’s most endangered species.- Almost all 115 species of lemurs are threatened with extinction and their habitats are rapidly disappearing on the island nation.- The pandemic and the resulting economic crisis has emerged as a moment of reckoning for conservation efforts, exposing the risks of relying heavily on foreign revenue and not focusing enough on communities at the frontline of safeguarding biodiversity.- This post is a commentary: the views expressed are those of the author, not necessarily Mongabay. What is the behavior of red-fronted Lemurs? Candid Animal Cam is in Madagascar – Every Tuesday, Mongabay brings you a new episode of Candid Animal Cam, our show featuring animals caught on camera traps around the world and hosted by Romi Castagnino, our writer and conservation scientist. Say hello to Madagascar’s newest mouse lemur, a pint-sized primate – A new species of mouse lemur, considered the tiniest primates in the world, has been described from Madagascar.- Microcebus jonahi is named for prominent Malagasy primatologist Jonah Ratsimbazafy, who has dedicated his life to studying and protecting Madagascar’s endemic lemurs.- Scientists fear the species is already at risk of disappearing like almost all of the 107 other species of lemurs, primates that are native to Madagascar.- Jonah’s mouse lemurs are found in an area half the size of Yosemite National Park, in a region where forests are fast disappearing. Endangered and endemic: Madagascar’s lemurs susceptible to coronavirus infection – Certain species of lemurs in Madagascar share a similar enzyme receptor to humans that could make them susceptible to contracting SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, a study shows.- Following calls from the scientific community both on the island and abroad, an emergency unit is being set up to strengthen the protection of lemurs in the face of the virus.- To date, there are no confirmed COVID-19 cases in lemurs.- The possibility of the virus spreading among lemurs, most of which are endangered species, worries researchers. A third of Madagascar’s lemur species on the brink of extinction, IUCN warns – Of the 107 lemur species, iconic primates that are endemic to Madagascar, 103 are threatened, with 33 of them now recognized as critically endangered on the IUCN Red List.- Among those now considered critically endangered are the tiniest primate in the world, the Madame Berthe’s mouse lemur (Microcebus berthae), and the Verreaux’s sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi), a creature known for its peculiar sideways hop that gives the impression it is dancing.- Half of the primate species of Africa are also under threat, including the eastern gorilla (Gorilla beringei), the largest living primate.- Also in danger of extinction: one of the largest whales species, the North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis), the European hamster (Cricetus cricetus) and the world’s most expensive fungus, the caterpillar fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis). In Madagascar’s dry forests, COVID-19 sparks an intense, early fire season – Though Madagascar officially has just under 1,800 reported infections and 16 deaths from COVID-19, the pandemic’s socioeconomic effects will be catastrophic for the country, the U.N. has warned.- One tangible impact has been the fire season, which has started early and is likely to be fiercer this year as rural residents deprived of tourism revenue, employment opportunities and access to food markets turn to the forest to survive.- The environment ministry registered 52,000 forest fire incidents from January until the start of June, with the western flank of the country, which hosts its unique dry forests, being the worst-affected.- A reduction in NGOs’ and state agencies’ field activities has made forest patrols more challenging and affected the critical task of creating fire breaks. One-two punch of drought, pandemic hits Madagascar’s poor and its wildlife – Because of the fallout from the COVID-19 pandemic, for the first time in years poverty is rising in Madagascar, already one of the poorest countries in the world.- Near Tsimanampesotse National Park in the southwest of the country, the loss of tourists has coincided with a disastrously dry rainy season, and restrictions associated with the pandemic are adding to rural distress; an estimated half a million people will need food aid in the coming months.- Erratic rainfall patterns and food scarcity don’t just affect humans but also the lemurs living in the park, according to Lemur Love, a nonprofit that works in Tsimanampesotse National Park.- The hunger crisis created by the drought and compounded by the pandemic could force people to lean even more heavily on nature; to impinge on forests and consume more wild meat to survive. Marijuana cultivation whittling away Madagascar’s largest connected forest – Northern Madagascar contains the largest block of connected forest left in the country.- Tsaratanana Reserve is supposed to protect a large portion of this forest. Satellite data and imagery indicate that Tsaratanana’s forests are being cut at an alarming pace. The Madagascar National Parks agency helped organize military deployments to the Tsaratanana area in 2014 and 2017, and is planning another intervention this year.- Scientists say that if this deforestation continues, it will fragment the reserve’s well-connected forests and threaten the animals that live there — many of which are found nowhere else in the world. As visitors vanish, Madagascar’s protected areas suffer a ‘devastating’ blow – The country has lost half a billion dollars in much-needed tourism revenue since the start of 2020 because of the COVID-19 crisis, according to official estimates.- Tourism contributes toward funding conservation efforts in Madagascar’s network of protected areas; those protected areas that rely heavily on foreign visitors have been hit worst by the crisis.- There are also fears that international funding, the primary support for conservation efforts in Madagascar, could be jeopardized as big donors face economic crises in their home countries.- Greater impoverishment could hurt communities living near the protected areas and lead to even more unsustainable exploitation of forests and natural resources. Ring-tailed lemurs ‘stink flirt’ (it’s not as bad as it sounds) – During the mating season, male ring-tailed lemurs rub secretions from glands on their wrists onto their tails and wave them at female lemurs.- These chemical secretions, identified by researchers at the University of Tokyo, have emerged as the first pheromone candidates to be identified in a primate.- Pheromones, chemical compounds that animals secrete, can signal more than sexual availability; they can also communicate danger or mark trails.- For the ring-tailed lemur secretions be recognized as real sex pheromones, the scientists will have to show that they are used to communicate only within the species and that they influence mating behavior. National parks in Africa shutter over COVID-19 threat to great apes – Wildlife authorities in some parts of Africa have effectively locked down parks that are home to gorillas, chimpanzees and bonobos, amid concerns that the COVID-19 pandemic could make the jump to great apes.- Humans and great apes share more than 95% of the same genetic material, and are susceptible to many of the same infectious diseases, ranging from respiratory ailments to Ebola.- Virunga National Park in the Democratic Republic of the Congo shut its doors to tourists this week, while in Rwanda all parks hosting gorillas and chimpanzees were also shut; Uganda is considering doing the same, with its parks de facto closed because of a drop in tourist arrivals.- Even if the apes avoid COVID-19, the loss of tourism revenue for the parks and potential loss of income for people who work to protect these species could cause enduring damage to conservation efforts, experts say. Global consumer demands fuel the extinction crisis facing the world’s primates – Alejandro Estrada of the Institute of Biology at the National Autonomous University of Mexico and Paul A. Garber of the Department of Anthropology at the University of Illinois-Urbana argue that human consumption patterns are driving primates to the brink of extinction.- Commodity production, extraction, and consumption are taking a heavy toll on key primates habitats around the world.- This post is a guest analysis. The views expressed are those of the authors, not necessarily Mongabay.

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Lemur species counts for selected parks

Protected AreaSpecies Andringitra13 Zahamena13 Marojejy12 Ranomafana12 Andasibe Mantadia11 Bemaraha11 Marotandrano11 Ankarana10 Masoala10 Kirindy Mitea8 Montagne d’Ambre8 Namoroka8 Zombitse-Vohibasia8 Isalo7 Kasijy7 Manombo7 Pic d’Ivohibe7 Bay de baly6 Bemarivo6 Bora6 Nosy Mangabe6 Tampoketsa-Analamaintso3 Tsimanampetsotsa3 Ambohijanahary2

Lemur species

Please note: a number of lemur species have been described since this list was published.

FamilyCommon nameScientific nameLocal nameActivePictures CheirogaleidaeMouse and Dwarf lemursNocturnal CheirogaleidaeHairy-eared Dwarf Mouse-lemurAllocebus trichotis Nocturnal CheirogaleidaeSouthern Fat-tailed Dwarf LemurCheirogaleus adipicaudatus MataviramboNocturnal CheirogaleidaeFurry-eared Dwarf LemurCheirogaleus crossleyi MataviramboNocturnal CheirogaleidaeGreater Dwarf LemurCheirogaleus major MataviramboNocturnal+ CheirogaleidaeWestern Fat-tailed Dwarf LemurCheirogaleus medius Matavirambo, Kely Be-ohy, Tsidy, TsidihyNocturnal CheirogaleidaeLesser Iron Gray Dwarf LemurCheirogaleus minusculus MataviramboNocturnal CheirogaleidaeGreater Iron Gray Dwarf LemurCheirogaleus ravus MataviramboNocturnal CheirogaleidaeSibree’s Dwarf LemurCheirogaleus sibreei MataviramboNocturnal CheirogaleidaeGray Mouse-lemurMicrocebus murinus Tsidy, Koitsiky, Titilivaha, Vakiandri, PondikyNocturnal+ CheirogaleidaePygmy Mouse-lemurMicrocebus myoxinus TsidyNocturnal CheirogaleidaeGolden Mouse-lemurMicrocebus ravelobensis TsidyNocturnal CheirogaleidaeRed Mouse-lemurMicrocebus rufus Anakatsidina, Tsidy, Tsitsidy, TistsihyNocturnal+ CheirogaleidaeGiant Mouse-lemur or Coquerel’s Mouse-lemurMirza coquereli Tsiba, Tilitilivaha, Siba, Setohy, FitilyNocturnal+ CheirogaleidaeAmber Mountain Fork-crowned LemurPhaner electromontis Tanta, TantaraolanaNocturnal CheirogaleidaeMasoala Fork-crowned LemurPhaner furcifer Tanta, TantaraolanaNocturnal CheirogaleidaeWestern Fork-crowned LemurPhaner pallescens Tanta, Tantaraolana, VakivohoNocturnal CheirogaleidaeSambirano Fork-crowned LemurPhaner parienti Tanta, TantaraolanaNocturnal DaubentoniidaeAye-aye Nocturnal DaubentoniidaeAye-ayeDaubentonia madagascariensisAye-aye, Ahay, Itay-hay, AiayNocturnal IndridaeWoolly lemurs and allies Diurnal IndridaeEastern AvahiAvahi laniger Avahina, Avahy, Ampongy, FotsifakaNocturnal+ IndridaeWestern AvahiAvahi occidentalis Fotsife, TsarafangitraNocturnal IndridaeIndri lemurIndri indri indri Babakoto, AmboanalaDiurnal+ IndridaeIndri lemurIndri indri variegatus Babakoto, AmboanalaDiurnal+ IndridaeCoquerel’s SifakaPropithecus coquereli Ankomba malandy, Sifaka, TsibahakaDiurnal IndridaeCrowned SifakaPropithecus deckenii coronatus Tsibahaka, SifakaDiurnal IndridaeDecken’s SifakaPropithecus deckenii dekenii Tsibahaka, SifakaDiurnal+ IndridaeSilky SifakaPropithecus diadema candidus Simpona, SimponyDiurnal IndridaeDiademed SifakaPropithecus diadema diadema Simpona, SimponyDiurnal+ IndridaeMilne-Edwards’s SifakaPropithecus edwardsi Simpona, SimponyDiurnal+ IndridaePerrier’s SifakaPropithecus perrieri Radjako, Ankomba JobDiurnal IndridaeTattersall’s SifakaPropithecus tattersalli Ankomba malandy, SimponaDiurnal IndridaeVerreaux’s SifakaPropithecus verreauxi SifakaDiurnal+ LemuridaeTrue lemursDiurnal LemuridaeWhite-fronted LemurEulemur albifrons VarikaDiurnal LemuridaeWhite-collared LemurEulemur albocollaris VarikaDiurnal LemuridaeRed-collared LemurEulemur collaris VarikaDiurnal+ LemuridaeCrowned LemurEulemur coronatus VarikaDiurnal LemuridaeBrown LemurEulemur fulvus Varikamavo, KombaDiurnal+ LemuridaeBlack LemurEulemur macaco Ankomba, KombaDiurnal+ LemuridaeBlue-eyed Black LemurEulemur macaco flavifronsAnkomba, KombaDiurnal+ LemuridaeMongoose LemurEulemur mongoz KombaDiurnal LemuridaeRed-bellied LemurEulemur rubriventer VarikamenaDiurnal LemuridaeRed-fronted LemurEulemur rufus Varika, VarikamavoDiurnal+ LemuridaeSanford’s LemurEulemur sanfordi Ankomba, BeharavoakaDiurnal LemuridaeAlaotran Gentle LemurHapalemur alaotrensis BandroDiurnal LemuridaeGolden Gentle LemurHapalemur aureus Varibolomena, BokombolomenaDiurnal LemuridaeGray Gentle LemurHapalemur griseus VaribolomadinikaDiurnal+ LemuridaeSambriano Gentle LemurHapalemur occidentalis Bekola, Kofi, Ankomba valihaDiurnal LemuridaeRing-tailed LemurLemur catta Maki, HiraDiurnal+ LemuridaeBroad-nosed Gentle LemurProlemur simus Varibolomavo, Vari, VarikandraDiurnal LemuridaeRed Ruffed LemurVarecia rubra VarimenaDiurnal+ LemuridaeBlack-and-White Ruffed LemurVarecia variegata VarijatsyDiurnal+ MegaladapidaeSportive lemurs Nocturnal MegaladapidaeBack-striped Sportive LemurLepilemur dorsalis ApongyNocturnal MegaladapidaeMilne-Edwards’s Sportive LemurLepilemur edwardsi Boenga, Boengy, RepahakaNocturnal+ MegaladapidaeWhite-footed Sportive LemurLepilemur leucopus SongikyNocturnal+ MegaladapidaeSmall-toothed Sportive LemurLepilemur microdon Trangalavaka, Kotrika or Kotreka, Fitiliky, Itataka, VarikosyNocturnal MegaladapidaeMitsinjo Sportive LemurLepilemur mitsinjonensisKotrika, VarikosyNocturnal MegaladapidaeWeasel LemurLepilemur mustelinus Trangalavaka, Kotrika, Fitiliky, Itataka, VarikosyNocturnal MegaladapidaeRed-tailed Sportive LemurLepilemur ruficaudatus Boenga, BoengyNocturnal MegaladapidaeAnkarana Sportive LemurLepilemur septentrionalis ankaranensis Mahiabeala, SongikyNocturnal MegaladapidaeSeal’s Sportive LemurLepilemur sealiSongikyNocturnal MegaladapidaeNorthern Sportive LemurLepilemur septentrionalis septentrionalis Mahiabeala, SongikyNocturnal

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